1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon crushed red chile flakes, to taste
2 to 4 fat garlic cloves, smashed and peeled
2 tablespoons drained capers
4 anchovy filets
1 small bunch kale, chopped (or use 3 large handfuls chopped kale)
Squeeze of lemon, optional
Grated pecorino or Parmesan cheese, for serving (optional)
1. Bring a heavily salted pot of water to a boil. Cook pasta until al dente. Drain.
2. Meanwhile, heat oil in the largest skillet you have. Add chiles and a pinch of salt and toast until golden, 1 to 2 minutes.
3. Add smashed garlic, capers and anchovies. Let cook until everything is golden, the capers look crisp around the edges and the anchovies have dissolved into the oil, about 3 to 4 minutes. (You can help anchovies dissolve by mashing them with a wooden spoon as they cook.) Add kale and 2 tablespoons water and sauté until kale wilts and cooks in the pan and is well coated with oil, about 5 minutes. You might have to add more water if the water evaporates before the kale finishes cooking.
4. Add drained pasta and toss well. Add more salt if necessary and plenty of black pepper, and serve drizzled with more oil and a squeeze of lemon if the dish needs a lift.